109 Verses of Qur’an about war

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In the name of Allāh,
the Beneficent, the Merciful.
Peace and Blessings of Allāh on Mohammad.
DEDICATED TO
Allāh–the Glorious and the High,
Lord of the worlds
AND TO
Mohammad–who brought the world
to our feet and eternity to our arms
*

     109 VERSES OF THE QUR’AN ABOUT WAR
(See also Atheist-Muslim debate, Is Islam peaceful)
One party on the Internet notes:

  1. That “at least 109 verses of the Qur’an call Muslims to war with nonbelievers for the sake of Islamic rule.”

ANSWER:
Is that all? Only 109 verses? Though Islam does not call on Muslims to war with nonbelievers for the sake of Islamic rule.”
Considering that from day one of his 22-year mission Mohammad was stoked into war, and had to undertake 65 campaigns as the atheist starkly noted, and considering that the Qur’an contains some 6,666 verses, then it is a tremendous blessing and mercy from Allah that only 109 verses (a mere 1.7%) of the Qur’an and not the entire Qur’an is about war. It is hardly credible that a general at war would instruct his soldiers on the future of pork bellies and soya beans than on the art of vanquishing the opponent.

Incidentally, Huston smith points out in his book The Illustrated World’s Religions: “Allah’s compassion and mercy are cited 192 times in the Koran as against 17 references to his wrath and vengeance” (p. 157).
And whereas punishment is equal to the crime, the reward for doing good is manifold:
“Whoever brings a good deed will have tenfold like it, and whoever brings an evil deed, will be recompensed only with the like of it, and they shall not be wronged”–(Qur’an 6:161);
“If anyone of you improves his Islamic religion then his good deeds will be rewarded ten times to seven hundred times for each good deed and a bad deed will be recorded as it is”–(Bokhari, Vol. 1, chapter 32 and #40).

The Qur’an does NOT “call Muslims to war with nonbelievers for the sake of Islamic rule.”
The Qur’an calls on Muslims to fight persecution and occupation –to drive out those who drove you out of your land.
“Permission (to fight) is given to those on whom war is made, because they are oppressed….Those who are driven from their homes without a just cause except that they say: Our Lord is Allah”–Qur’an 22:39). This shows that Muslims were victims of persecution and war was first made on them.

Regarding Qur’an 2:190-193:
2:190: “And fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you but be not aggressive. Surely Allah loves not the aggressors.
2:191: “And kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from where they drove you out, and persecution is worse than slaughter. And fight not with them at the Sacred Mosque until they fight with you in it; so if they fight you (in it), slay them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers.
2:192: But if they desist, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
2:193: And fight them until there is no persecution, and religion is only for Allah. But if they desist, then there should be no hostility except against the oppressors.”

2:190 clearly shows that Muslims were allowed to fight only a defensive war against those who first took up arms against Muslims. This is made even clearer in Qur’an 22:39 which states: “Permission (to fight) is given to those on whom war is made because they are oppressed.”
2:191 refers only to those who fight Muslims; not to all disbelievers everywhere.
2:192 makes it even clearer that not all disbelievers everywhere are to be killed, and for fighting to be stopped if the disbelievers cease fighting, as shown in the words “But if they desist, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful” to them.
2:193 makes the matter clearer yet that only oppressors are to be fought against as shown in the words “But if they desist, then there should be no hostility except against the oppressors.”
Again, 2:193 states: “And fight them until there is no persecution, and religion is only for Allah. But if they desist, then there should be no hostility except against the oppressors.”
This is proof enough that the Qur’an does not “call Muslims to war with nonbelievers for the sake of Islamic rule.”

  1. “Unlike nearly all of the Old Testament verses of violence, the verses of violence in the Quran are mostly open-ended, meaning that they are not restrained by the historical context of the surrounding text. They are part of the eternal, unchanging word of Allah.”

Qur’an is “open-ended”. Absolutely!
Unlike the Bible –Old and New Testaments– and all other Scriptures, which were restricted to their respective people and for a limited time, until the advent of (the Comforter)  Mohammad, the Qur’an is for all people to the Resurrection. Whenever the situation arises the verses become applicable.

  1. “Unfortunately, there are very few verses of tolerance and peace to abrogate or even balance out the many that call for nonbelievers to be fought and subdued until they either accept humiliation, convert to Islam, or are killed. Muhammad’s own martial legacy – and that of his companions – along with the remarkable stress on violence found in the Quran have produced a trail of blood and tears across world history.”

ANSWER:
That “there are very few verses of tolerance and peace to abrogate or even balance out the many that call for nonbelievers to be fought and subdued until they either accept humiliation, convert to Islam, or are killed.”
As shown above Muslims fighting is restricted to a defensive fighting to end persecution and to reclaim their property/land.
Apart from Qur’an 2:190-193 quoted above, the other Qur’anic verses critics quote to substantiate their charge that Islam calls for the subjugation and conversion are Qur’an 9:5 and 9:29.

Qur’an 9:5 states: “So when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters, wherever you find them, and take them captive and besiege them and lie in wait for them in every ambush. But if they repent and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, leave their way free. Surely Allåh is Forgiving, Merciful.”
Muslims were fully justified to pursue, besiege etc; and slay the enemies wherever they were found. You do not allow enemies bent on annihilating you the opportunity to regroup and even fortify their efforts against you. Not even modern nations allow this. (Not even transgressors and occupiers allow this).
In completely routing the enemies Muslims had, in the words of Muhammad Ali, “the sanction of civilized warfare, ancient as well as modern.”

However, “Slay the idolaters wherever you find them,” does not refer to all idolaters. Muhammad Ali explains:
“The clear exception of the last verse (9:4) –(which states: “Except those of the idolaters with whom you made an agreement, then they have not failed you in anything and have not backed up anyone against you; so fulfil their agreement to the end of their term. Surely Allah loves those who keep their duty”)– shows that by the idolaters here are meant, not all idolaters or polytheists wherever they may be found in the world, not even all idolaters of Arabia, but only those idolatrous tribes of Arabia assembled at the pilgrimage who had at first made agreements with the Muslims and then violated them.

The exception here has given rise to much misconception. It is thought that it offers to the disbelievers the alternative of the sword or the Qur’an. Nothing is farther from the truth. The injunction contained in the first part of the verse establishes the fact that the whole verse relates to certain idolatrous Arab tribes who had broken their engagements with the Muslims, and who had now been apprised of a similar repudiation by the Muslims. The order to kill them and to make them prisoners and to besiege them and ambush them amounts clearly to an order to fight against them, as it is in war only that all these things are made lawful. They had so often broken their word that they could no more be trusted.….The subject is further clarified in the next verse and the following section.” (And the next verse says: “And if anyone of the idolaters seek thy protection, protect him till he hears the word of Allah, then convey him to his place of safety. This is because they are a people who know not” (9:6).

“This verse leaves no doubt that the Prophet was never ordered to kill anyone on account of his religion. “You shall give him a safe conduct that he may return home again securely in case he shall not think fit to embrace Muhammadanism” (Sale).” (Comm.1033-1035).

As noted further on the Prophet’s duty was only to deliver the message of the Qur’an not to enforce it.

Regarding Qur’an 9:29: “Fight those who believe not in Allåh, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which Allåh and His Messenger have forbidden, nor follow the Religion of Truth, out of those who have been given the Book, until they pay the tax in acknowledgement of superiority and they are in a state of subjection.”
Muhammad Ali explains:

“The last word on the wars with the idolaters of Arabia having been said, this verse introduces the subject of fighting with the followers of the Book. Though the Jews had for a long time assisted the idolatrous Arabians in their struggle to uproot Islam, the great Christian power, the Roman Empire, had only just mobilized its forces for the subjection of the new religion, and the Tabuk expedition followed, which constitutes the subject-matter of a large portion of what follows in this chapter. As the object of this Christian power was simply the subjection of the Muslims, the words in which their final vanquishment by the Muslims is spoken of are different from those dealing with the final vanquishment of the idolatrous Arabians. The Qur’an neither required that the idolaters should be compelled to accept Islam, nor was it in any way its object to bring the Christians into subjection. On the other hand, the idolaters wanted to suppress Islam by the sword, and the Christians first moved themselves to bring Muslim Arabia under subjection. The fate of each was, therefore, according to what it intended for the Muslims. The word jizyah is derived from  jaza, meaning  he gave satisfaction, and means, according to LL,  the tax that is taken from the free non-Muslim subjects of the Muslim Government whereby they ratify the compact that ensures them protection; or, according to AH, because it is a compensation for the protection which is guaranteed them, the non-Muslim subjects being free from military service.

The phrase ‘an yad-in has been explained variously. The word yad (lit., hand) stands for power or superiority, the use of the hand being the real source of the superiority of man over all other animals, and the apparent meaning of the phrase is in acknowledgement of your superiority in protecting their lives, etc. (AH). It may also be added that the permission to fight, as given to the Muslims, is subject to the condition that the enemy should first take up the sword, Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you (2:190). The Holy Prophet never overstepped this limit, nor did his followers. He fought against the Arabs when they took up the sword to destroy the Muslims, and he led an expedition against the Christians when the Roman Empire first mobilized its forces with the object of subjugating the Muslims. And so scrupulous was he that, when he found that the enemy had not yet taken the initiative, he did not attack the Roman Empire, but returned without fighting. Later on, however, the Roman Empire, like the Persians, helped the enemies of Islam and fomented trouble against the newly established Muslim Kingdom, as a result of which both these empires came into conflict with the Muslims and, notwithstanding the fact that both the Persians and the Romans were very powerful nations with unlimited resources and strong military organizations, and that they both tried at one and the same time to subjugate Islam, the result was what is predicted here in clear words — they were both reduced to a state of subjection by an insignificant nation like the Arabs.”
Had the enemies not militated to annihilate Muslims they would not have been “reduced to a state of subjection.”

Whereas striving with the “sword” is necessary to overcome aggression, occupation and oppression, striving with the Qur’an is known as the “great” Jihad –Jihad kabiran, (Qur’an 25:52).
That the Prophet’s duty was only to deliver the Message of the Qur’an and NOT enforce it is cemented in the following  verses from Allāh:

  • “thou art not one to compel them. So remind by means of the Qur’an him who fears My warning”–(Qur’an 50:45).
  • “And if thy Lord had pleased, all those who are in the earth would have believed, all of them. Wilt thou then force men till they are believers?”–(Qur’an 10:99);
  • “And say: Truth is from your Lord; so let him who please believe, and let him who please disbelieve”–(Qur’an 18:29);
  • “There is no compulsion in religion”–(Qur’an 2:256. More on this verse later);
  • And obey Allāh and obey the Messenger; but if you turn away. the duty of Our Messenger is only to DELIVER (the message) clearly”–(Qur’an 64:12; also 3:19; 5:92, 99; 13:7, 40; 16:82; 24:54; 29:18; 46:35).
  • Tell those who believe to forgive those who fear not the days of Allåh that He may reward a people for what they earn. Whoever does good it is for himself, and whoever does evil, it is against himself; then to your Lord you will be brought back”–(Qur’an 45:14-15).

These injunctions belie and obliterate the critic’s charge that the Qur’an “call(s) for nonbelievers to be fought and subdued until they either accept humiliation, convert to Islam, or are killed.

In fact, Islam is such a peaceful religion that Muslims are to make peace even in the face of possible deception by the enemy:
“And fight with them until there is no more persecution, and all religions are for Allah” “And if they incline to peace, incline thou also to it…And if they intend to deceive thee, then surely Allah is sufficient for thee…” “So if they withdraw from you and fight you not and offer you peace, then Allah allows you no way against them”–(Qur’an 8:39; 61-62; 4:90).
Muslims could not lay down their arms and “incline to peace” if Islam had required that “nonbelievers to be fought and subdued until they either accept humiliation, convert to Islam, or are killed.”
Islam is not only “tolerance” Islam is the “abode of peace”–(Qur’an 10:25).

Again, For over twenty gruelling years Mohammad was persecuted, besieged, target of assassination attempt, forced into exile, pursued, and warred on. Yet upon his triumph over his inveterate enemies he forgave them:
“It is related that the Prophet took hold of the two sides of the gate of the Ka’ba on the day of the conquest of Makkah and said to the Quraish: How do you think I should treat you? They said: We hope for good, a noble brother and the son of a noble brother. Then he said: I say as my brother Joseph said: “No reproof be against you this day” (Rz).”
What magnanimity!
No inquisition. No incrimination. No confession. No rancor. Only lofty words of benevolence and nobility– “No reproof be against you this day.”1
It is doubtful that Mohammad would have forgiven these disbelievers if Allah/Islam had required “nonbelievers to be fought and subdued until they either accept humiliation, convert to Islam, or are killed.”

Unlike nations that are transgressors, oppressors, occupiers and aggressors and yet seek to crush their victims (and even fly to distant lands to kill those who are considered a threat to them), Mohammad was no transgressor no oppressor no occupier no aggressor; and his enemies were in his yard.
Whatever measures Mohammad took to safeguard himself and followers from extermination Mohammad was fully justified. No honest critic or individual would state otherwise.

The only sword that Islam wields is the sword of truth and justice.
“THEY (Muhummed’s critics) SEE FIRE INSTEAD OF LIGHT, UGLINESS INSTEAD OF GOOD. THEY DISTORT AND PRESENT EVERY GOOD QUALITY AS A GREAT VICE. IT REFLECTS THEIR OWN DEPRAVITY…THE CRITICS ARE BLIND. THEY CANNOT SEE THAT THE ONLY ‘SWORD’ MUHAMMAD WIELDED WAS THE SWORD OF MERCY, COMPASSION, FRIENDSHIP AND FORGIVENESS –THE SWORD THAT CONQUERS ENEMIES AND PURIFIES THEIR HEARTS. HIS SWORD WAS SHARPER THAN THE SWORD OF STEEL.”2

That “Muhammad’s own martial legacy – and that of his companions – along with the remarkable stress on violence found in the Quran have produced a trail of blood and tears across world history.”
This may be melody to the ears of the bigoted and the ignorant. But facts readily disfigure this fallacious sculpture.
Aside from the above presentation which shows Mohammad fought only a defensive war. Prof. Abdul Ahad Dawud –the former Reverend David Benjamin Keldani, B.D., a Roman Catholic priest of the Uniate-Chaldean sect– notes in his revealing work, Muhammad in the Bible:
“it is worthy of note that all the blood shed in the wars of Badr, Ohud, and other campaigns led personally by the Prophet Muhammad could not exceed one-hundredth of the blood shed by Joshua. Yet not a single instance of cruelty or injustice can be proved against the Apostle of Allah. He was clement, noble, magnanimous, and forgiving.” (p. 261).

And while Muslims post-Mohammad (and the first four Caliphs) may have shed blood in the name of Allah/Islam, that this “have produced a trail of blood and tears across world history” is another piece of tripe, shredded by several figures:

  • “History makes it clear, however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of the sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever repeated.-(De Lacy O’Leary, Islam at the Crossroads, London 1923, p. 8. Quoted in Prof. K.S. Ramakrishna Rao, Muhammed The Prophet of Islam, p. 32).
  • Ismail and Lois Lamya al-Faruqui points out in their Cultural Atlas of Islam: “And yet, if the Muslims were so tolerant, the Christian persistently asks, why did their co-religionists flock to Islam by the millions? Of these co-religionists the Arabs were the smallest minority. The rest were Hellenes, Persians, Egyptians, Cyrenaicans, Berbers, Cypriots, and Caucasians.” (pp. 197-198)
  • Ahmed Deedat has pointed out that “over a hundred million Indonesians are Muslim, yet no conquering Muslim army ever landed on any of its over two thousand islands.” He also points out that in “Malaysia. The overwhelming number of its people in this country are Muslims yet no Muslim soldier had landed there either;” and that in “Africa: The majority of the people on the East coast of Africa as far down as Mozambique, as well as the bulk of the inhabitants on the West coast of the continent are Muslims, but history does not record any invading hordes of Muslims from anywhere. What sword?  Where was the sword? The Muslim trader did the job. His good conduct and moral rectitude achieved the miracle of conversion.”3 (The good conduct of the Muslim trader and Islam’s appeal to reason).
  • Ahmed Deedat also notes that “after eight centuries in Spain the Muslims were totally eliminated from that country…One can blame the Muslim for exploitation if you like but one cannot charge them with using the sword to convert the Spaniards to the Islamic religion.”
    “The Muslims were also the masters of India for a thousand years, but eventually when the sub-continent received independence in 1947, the Hindus obtained three-quarters of the country and the Muslims the balance of the one-quarter.  Why?  Because the Muslims did not force Islam down the Hindus’ throat! In Spain and in India, the Muslims were no paragons of virtue, yet they obeyed the Qur’anic injunction to the letter –LET THERE BE NO COMPULSION IN RELIGION: FOR TRUTH STANDS OUT DISTINCT FROM ERROR: (Holy Qur’an 2:256)”
  • Thomas W. Arnold has stated in his The Preaching of Islam that: “Of forced conversion or anything like persecution in the early days of the Arab conquest, we hear nothing.” And that: “Many of the persecutions of the Christians in Muslim countries can be traced either to distrust of their loyalty, excited by the intrigues and interference of Christian foreigners and the enemies of Islam, or to the bad feeling stirred up by the treacherous or brutal behaviour of the latter towards the Musalmans.” (pp. 136, 77, respectively. This may be a timeless observation).
  • Again, Mr. Arnold:
    “of any organised attempt to force the acceptance of Islam on the non-Muslim population, or of any systematic persecution intended to stamp out the Christian religion, we hear nothing. Had the caliphs chosen to adopt either course of action, they might have swept away Christianity as easily as Ferdinand and Isabella drove Islam out of Spain, or Louis XIV made Protestantism penal in France, or the Jews were kept out of England for 350 years. The Eastern Churches in Asia were entirely cut off from communion with the rest of Christendom, throughout which no one would have been found to lift a finger on their behalf, as heretical communions. So that the very survival of these Churches to the present day is a strong proof of the generally tolerant attitude of the Muhammadan governments towards them.” (Ibid. p. 80).
  1. In Christianity and Judaism (for the most part), it is considered taboo to actively emulate the Bible or the Torah.” “The opposite is true for Islam, considering the First Pillar, which advocates that there is no Will but the Will of Allah, and that submission to the scripture unequivocally is required.”

ANSWER:
This is amusing. Christians and Jews “considered (it) taboo to actively emulate the Bible or the Torah” and they expect God to give them heaven.
What is the “Will of Allah”?
The “Will of Allah” is for us to live honorably and peacefully:

–fulfilling covenants, keeping of oaths and not to be deceptive (Qur’an 16:91-92); to speak justly (6:153); to be righteous (2:277-278; 6:152-154); to not let hatred for a people incite you to transgress (5:2); to render back trusts to whom they are due, and to judge justly (4:58); because Allah God loves those who judge in equity (5:45-47)

–not to deal unjustly with men (2:279, 5:8); and not to rob them of their dues (26:183); to give justice even if it be against one’s self or parents or kins or whether he be poor or rich (4:135), to feed the needy and the poor, to free the captives, to help those in debt, to care for the orphans, the wayfarer, and to free the slaves (9:60, 2:177), not to act corruptly in the earth or to make mischief (26:183); not to be transgressors (2:190), not to help one another in sin and aggression (5:2), to restrain our anger and forgive others (3:133), to fight on behalf of the oppressed (4:75; 22:39-40); because Allah God loves those who are just, and because He commands justice and the doing of good, and He forbids injustice (60:8, 16:90)

–not to help or counsel one another in sin, but in goodness (5:2; 60:8-9); not to take a greater recompense than the injury suffered (2:194; 16:126; 42:40); that instead of retaliation, to make reconciliation, and to show patience and forgiveness (16:126; 42:39-43); to be merciful and forgiving (3:133); to fight only as long as there is persecution/ oppression (2:193), and to make peace when the enemy desires peace (4:90, 8:61); because Allah God loves the doer of good, and the dutiful (2:195, 3:75)

–all men are created equal (95:4), that we are made into different tribes and nations that we may know one another (49:13), that we are to be judged not by our race, color or nationality but by our deeds (6:133), that the noblest ones are those who are righteous (49:13, 98:7), to return evil with that which is better (23:96), to give justice (4:58; 5:8); because Allah God loves those who judge in equity, and because Allah God is aware of what you do (5:45, 4:135)

–to avoid illicit relations (17:32); to establish regular prayer, because prayer keeps one from indecency and evil (29:45);

–that both man and woman were created from the same medium (4:1), and are to be life partners (25:54; 16:72; 24:32); with love and compassion between them–(7:189; 30:21)

–Woman has like rights with those of man –the same is due to her as is due from her (2:228). She is a garment of man as he is her garment (to cover, protect, beautify, and comfort (2:187); and is “a fountain of love and affection”–(30:21); and his friend/protector–(9:71)

–women can earn, and can inherit and own property (4:32, 7, 177); she has exclusive right to utilize her earnings however she pleases (4:4, 32); she is to be honored (4:1) and that she and man are inheritors of Paradise (43:70; 4:124; 16:97; 33:35)

–condemns compulsion (2:256); aggression (32:20); oppression, persecution (2:193; 42:42); and exploitation (6:153; 26:181-184; 83:1-4)

–promotes peace (8:61), love (60:7-8); patience (23:111), tolerance (24:22; 45:14), and justice for all regardless of race, color or creed (4:135; 7:29; 16:90)

–advocates that all, regardless of race, nationality or color are equal, and that one is better than the other only through righteousness (49:13);

–to fight on behalf of the oppressed (4:75); and for religious freedom, for all (8:39; 22:40).

–allows freedom of religion (2:256; 6:105-109; 9:107-108; 10:88-100; 18:29; 42:15; 50:45; 76:3; 109:1-6); freedom of movement, thought, and expression (4:140; 6:68, 108; 29:52); the pursuit of knowledge, and the acquisition of wealth and property–(2:274-275, 276-282; 35:12; 53:48; 62:10);

–to choose only those worthy of power and to exercise justice–(4:58); to govern by consultation/counsel.–(3:158; 4:58; 42:38. Here’s democracy for you; and 1400 years ago, while Europe was yet running around with flint tools and torches).

-“Tell those who believe (Muslims) to forgive those who fear not the days of Allåh that He may reward a people for what they earn. Whoever does good it is for himself, and whoever does evil, it is against himself; then to your Lord you will be brought back”–(Qur’an 45:14-15).

And what is the “will” of the government of your country? And doesn’t your government require your “submission” to their “will” (law) or face the consequence? Or you can leave the country. Same as those who do not wish to submit to the “Will of Allah.” And there is no law more equitable and just than Islamic Shari’ah.

  1. “The strangest and most untrue thing that can be said about Islam is that it is a Religion of Peace. If every standard by which the West is judged and condemned (slavery, imperialism, intolerance, misogyny, sexual repression, warfare…) were applied equally to Islam, the verdict would be devastating. Islam never gives up what it conquers, be it religion, culture, language or life. Neither does it make apologies or any real effort at moral progress. It is the least open to dialogue and the most self-absorbed. It is convinced of its own perfection, yet brutally shuns self-examination and represses criticism.”

ANSWER:
That “If every standard by which the West is judged and condemned (slavery, imperialism, intolerance, misogyny, sexual repression, warfare…) were applied equally to Islam, the verdict would be devastating.”

Slavery: There is no “slavery” in Islam. Islam abolished slavery and requires that State funds be used to free slaves from their owners. (See Islam-slaves/slavery

Imperialism: There is no “imperialism” in Islam. Allah does not require Muslims to conquer land for Him or to control other people. Had these people not been bent on crushing Islam Muslims, as noted in items 3 and 4, would have had no recourse to take up arms against them.
Once Muslims had triumphed over these people it would have been a grave mistake for Muslims to leave them so they can recuperate and refortify their efforts to militate against Muslims. Muslims had all justification to rule over them.
(For the Prophet’s “campaigns” read Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad. Even after the Prophet’s death Muslims had to fight wars against those determined to crush the fledgling Islamic State –read Muhammad Ali, The Early Caliphate which may be obtained from www.muslim. org).

Intolerance: There is no “intolerance” in Islam. Materials in items 3 and 4 belie and obliterate this grossly baseless charge that critics boorishly and slavishly parrot from the other.

Regarding the usual charge that earlier Makkan revelation of ”tolerance” was abrogated by the later Madinan revelation of “intolerance.” There is no abrogation in the Qur’an –one verse is not abrogated by another. (See Qur’an-abrogation & collecting).
In the human sphere, a nation that is perceived as evil is first requested by the World body –the UN– to change its policy on its own. Failing to comply, the nation is subjected to the second step of sanctions. And followed, if need be, by the third stage of military action against it.

Allāh is Just; He does not punish a people for its evil without first sending a messenger, to admonish them to reform to goodness: “And We destroyed no town but it had (its) warners– To remind. And We are never unjust”–(Qur’an 26:208-209. Also 28:59).
At Makkah the Idolaters not only rejected Prophet Mohammad’s “compassion” with persecution but pursued him to Madinah to annihilate him. Hence, they entered the second phase of their war against peace –to be threatened with punishment. Yet, they were heedless. Therefore, the third phase –that of force– became necessary.
Makkan “compassion” did not change to Madinan “retribution”: the method of approach changed to suit the prevailing atmosphere.

The Qur’anic message is both “compassion” and “retribution” –compassion to those who refrain from transgression and retribution against transgressors.
In fact even transgressors are forgiven if they end their transgression:

  • “And kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from where they drove you out, and persecution is worse than slaughter…..But if they desist, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful”–(Qur’an 2:191-192).
  • “The only punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered, or crucified, or….Except those who repent before you overpower them; so know that Allah is Forgiving, Merciful”–(Qur’an 5:33-34).

Parent’s have both “softness” and “hardness” of hearts: exercising one or the other depending upon the child’s behavior –whether the child is obedient or delinquent. One does not abrogate the other.
There are no “discrepancies” in the Qur’an, only a lack of meditating on it.

Since Islam declares through the Qur’an:
-there is no compulsion in religion: every person is at liberty to follow his own inclinations-(Qur’an 2:256; 6:107; 9:6; 10:99-100; 17:7;  18:6, 29; 42:15; 50:45; 76:3; 109:1-6);
-Allah has created man and woman and multiplied from them-(4:1);
-made us into different tribes and nations and of colors and languages that we may know one another-(5:48; 30:22; 49:13);
-sent messengers to all nations-(10:47);
-to protect the polytheist-(9:6);
-every people has rites and ceremonies-(22:67);
-charity is for the poor and needy, the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransoming of slaves, etc;-(2:177; 9:60);
-to give justice even if it be against ones’ own parents or self-(4:135);
-to believe in all prophets and revelations-(3:83; 4:163-164);
-not to revile other gods -(6:108);
-if Allah did not repel some people by others, monasteries, and churches, and synagogues, and mosques would have been pulled down-(22:40);
-religion is only for Allah-(8:39);
-to make peace even in the face of possible deception by the enemy-8:61-62;
it cannot then be said that there is “intolerance” in Islam.

Misogyny: Far from teaching hatred of women, Islam esteems womanhood as symbol of purity and mother-hood as gateway to Paradise. Allah says:

  • man and Woman were created from the same essence–(Qur’an 4:1), and instilled with the same laws –such as the five senses and susceptibilities to hunger and disease– one cannot be superior to the other. How then does Islam teach misogyny?
  • reverence the womb that bore you (not the loins that emitted you)–(Qur’an 4:1); and Prophet Mohammad taught that paradise lies at the feet of mothers (not at the feet of fathers)–(Ibn Majah, #2771).. How then does Islam teach misogyny?
  • men and women are garments to the other–(Qur’an 2:187). Garments protect, comfort, beautify and conceal the body’s imperfections. Since men and women are to protect, comfort, beautify and keep each other’s flaws private; how then does Islam teach misogyny?
  • men and women are friends one of another–(Qur’an 9:71). Friends do not oppress one another: friends liberate and protect one another. How then does Islam teach misogyny?
  • women have rights similar to those against her–(Qur’an 2:228). People who have mutual rights cannot subjugate the other. How then does Islam teach misogyny?
  • women have rights to inheritance, and full control over her earnings–(Qur’an 4:7, 11, 177; 4:32). How then does Islam teach misogyny?
  • women have moral and spiritual equality with men–(Qur’an 3:194, 197; 24:30, 31, 55; 33:35; 49:13; 57:12, 18, 19). How then does Islam teach misogyny?
  • Allah has put love and compassion between man and woman, and that man may find peace of mind in her–(Qur’an 7:189; 30:21). The man who abuses his wife, causes her distress or puts her under duress cannot find love and compassion and comfort in her. This verse also condemns marital rape. How then does Islam teach misogyny?

Women have three degrees of excellence over men:
There is a report of a man asking the Prophet
“Who is more entitled to be treated with the best companionship,” to which the Prophet said, “Your mother.”
The man said, “Who is next?” The Prophet said, “Your mother.”
The man further said, “Who is next?” The Prophet said, “Your mother.”
The man asked for the fourth time, “Who is next?” The Prophet said, “Your father”–(Bokhari Vol. 8, #2).
Some misogyny. (See Islam-women).

Allah is a Just God. He would not discriminate against woman because of her form and physiology; a form and physiology of which she had no choice –a form and physiology He gave her.

Further:
-Allah says whatever a woman earns belong solely to her–(Qur’an 4:32. And this earning is not restricted to baking bread and spinning threads into carpet. And after her last child reaches the age of full time school there is no reason for her to keep company with the four walls of the house).
-Prophet Mohammad stressed the educating even of slave-girls: “The man shall have a double reward who has a slave-girl and he trains her in the BEST MANNER and he gives her the BEST EDUCATION, then he SETS HER FREE and MARRIES her”–(Bokhari Vol.; 3 #720. Vol 4 # 655. Notably Islam abolished slavery: see Islam-slaves/slavery).
-Muhammad Ali notes in his The Early Caliphate that ‘Umar, “When as a Caliph he made education compulsory in Arabia, it was made so for both boys and girls”–(p. 120).

Significantly, Muhammad Ali points out in his The Religion of Islam, (pp. 628-629) that “woman took interest in all the national activities of the Muslim community” –joining “in congregational prayers”–(Bukhari 10:162, 164); joining “the soldiers in the field of battle, to perform a large number of duties, such as the carrying of provisions,” “taking care of the sick and the wounded,” “removing the wounded and the slain from the battlefield,” “or taking part in actual fighting when necessary.” “Women also helped their husbands in the labour of the field,” “served the male guests at a feast,” and “carried on business,” “they could sell to and purchase from men, and men could sell to and purchase from them.” “A woman was appointed by the Caliph ‘Umar as superintendent of the market of Madinah.” (Bukhari, 56:66, 67, 68; 56:62, 63, 65; F.B. III, p. 228; Bukhari, 67:108, 78; 11:40; 34:67, respectively).
“A woman is also spoken of as acting as an Imam, while men followed her, though it was in her own house”–(Abu Dawud 2:58 (Vol.1, #591, 592). The Religion of Islam, p.385).

Sexual repression: Muslim men may be repressing their women but the material above (shown under “misogyny”) obliterates this charge. In addition, Islam requires that both men and women practice sexual modesty:

  • “Say to the believing men that they lower their gaze and restrain their sexual passions…….And say to the believing women that they lower their gaze and restrain their sexual passions”–(Qur’an 24:30-31).
  • “Surely the men who submit and the women who submit, and the believing men and the believing women, and the obeying men and the obeying women, and the truthful men and the truthful women, and the patient men and the patient women, and the humble men and the humble women, and the almsgiving men and the almsgiving women, and the fasting men and the fasting women, and the men who guard their private parts and the women who guard, and the men who remember Allāh much and the women who remember­ –Allāh has prepared for THEM FORGIVENESS AND A MIGHTY REWARD”–(Qur’an 33:35). (For women and marriage see Islam-women).
  • And the Prophet says that whoever refrains from illegal speech and illicit relations will have Paradise: Said the magnificent Messenger of Allah: “Whoever can guarantee what is between his two jaw-bones and what is between his two legs, I guarantee Paradise for him”–(Bokhari Vol. 8, #481).

There are many non-Muslim countries that legislate that an adult male cannot have sex with a female under the age ranging between 13-18 (and that an adult woman cannot have sex with a male of similar age as that of a girl).  Isn’t this “sexual repression”?

Warfare: As shown in this presentation there is no “warfare” in Islam. Only fighting to end persecution and occupation is allowed. In fact, Muslims are required to fight even on behalf of non-Muslims:
“Permission (to fight) is given to those on whom war is made, because they are oppressed. And surely Allah is Able to assist them—Those who are driven from their homes without a just cause except that they say: Our Lord is Allah. And if Allah did not repel some people by others, cloisters, and churches, and synagogues, and mosques in which Allah’s name is much remembered, would have been pulled down. And surely Allah will help him who helps Him. Surely Allah is Strong, Mighty” –(Qur’an 22:39-40).
And which injunction the early Muslims observed. Thomas Arnold notes in his The Preaching of Islam (p.54):

“Michael the Elder, Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch, writing in the latter half of the twelfth century…writes: “This is why the God of vengeance…beholding the wickedness of the Romans who, throughout their dominions, cruelly plundered our churches and our monasteries and condemned us without pity –brought from the region of the south the sons of Ishmael, to deliver us through them from the hands of the Romans.”

(Muslims not only fought on behalf of Christians but also made gifts to their Churches as Muhammad Ali notes:
“Muir, after admiring the leniency of the Arab conquerors towards the conquered and their justice and integrity, quotes a Nestorian Bishop of the time:  “These Arabs to whom God has accorded in our days the dominion are become our masters; but they do not combat the Christian religion; much rather they protect our faith; they respect our priests and our holy men, and make gifts to our churches and our convents” (p. 128 [The Caliphate])””(The Early Caliphate, p. 86).

“Islam never gives up what it conquers, be it religion, culture, language or life.”
Whereas Muslims post-Prophet Mohammad and the first four Caliphs may have conquered. There is no “conquers” in Islam. The Prophet and Caliphs did not embark with the intention of subjugating other people for religious or territorial expansion.
As shown in the above presentation, the Prophet and Caliphs fought defensive wars. In these wars they made “triumphs” not “conquers.” They had no alternative but to govern these lands to prevent other attempts to crush Islam. The vanquished population, recognizing the brilliance of Islam,  embraced Islam of their own free will.

That Islam is not, never was, a religion of conquest, I requote three of the statements as noted in item 3:

  • “History makes it clear, however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of the sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever repeated.-(De Lacy O’Leary, Islam at the Crossroads, London 1923, p. 8. Quoted in Prof. K.S. Ramakrishna Rao, Muhammed The Prophet of Islam, p. 32).
  • Thomas W. Arnold has stated in his The Preaching of Islam that: “Of forced conversion or anything like persecution in the early days of the Arab conquest, we hear nothing.” And that: “Many of the persecutions of the Christians in Muslim countries can be traced either to distrust of their loyalty, excited by the intrigues and interference of Christian foreigners and the enemies of Islam, or to the bad feeling stirred up by the treacherous or brutal behaviour of the latter towards the Musalmans.” (pp. 136, 77, respectively. This may be a timeless observation).
  • Again, Mr. Arnold:
    “of any organised attempt to force the acceptance of Islam on the non-Muslim population, or of any systematic persecution intended to stamp out the Christian religion, we hear nothing. Had the caliphs chosen to adopt either course of action, they might have swept away Christianity as easily as Ferdinand and Isabella drove Islam out of Spain, or Louis XIV made Protestantism penal in France, or the Jews were kept out of England for 350 years. The Eastern Churches in Asia were entirely cut off from communion with the rest of Christendom, throughout which no one would have been found to lift a finger on their behalf, as heretical communions. So that the very survival of these Churches to the present day is a strong proof of the generally tolerant attitude of the Muhammadan governments towards them.” (Ibid. p. 80).

“Neither does it (Islam) make apologies or any real effort at moral progress”:
As shown, there is nothing in Islam for which to apologize. If you know otherwise produce your proof.

Islam is not only for “moral” progress; Islam is also for physical, spiritual, material and intellectual “progress”:

Islam instills moral progress:
(Apart from the Qur’anic injunctions noted in item 4) Allah exhorts us:

  • “Surely prayer keeps (one) away from indecency and evil”–(Qur’an 29:45).
  • “Go not near to fornication/adultery”–(Qur’an 17:32; 25:68). Going not near to fornication/adultery means to not even indulge in acts that lead to them –such as amoral speech and touching.
  • “Say to the believing men that they lower their gaze and restrain their sexual passions…….And say to the believing women that they lower their gaze and restrain their sexual passions”–(Qur’an 24:30-31).
  • “Surely the men who submit and the women who submit, and the believing men and the believing women, and the obeying men and the obeying women, and the truthful men and the truthful women, and the patient men and the patient women, and the humble men and the humble women, and the almsgiving men and the almsgiving women, and the fasting men and the fasting women, and the men who guard their private parts and the women who guard, and the men who remember Allāh much and the women who remember­ –Allāh has prepared for THEM FORGIVENESS AND A MIGHTY REWARD”–(Qur’an 33:35). (For women and marriage see Islam-women).
  • And the Prophet says that whoever refrains from illegal speech and illicit relations will have Paradise: Said the magnificent Messenger of Allah: “Whoever can guarantee what is between his two jaw-bones and what is between his two legs, I guarantee Paradise for him”–(Bokhari Vol. 8, #481).

And the moral benefit of Fasting is that one who voluntarily gives up those things which are lawful will not (or should not) indulge in those things that are unlawful; for instance, eating pork, gambling, intoxicants, illicit relations. (See Fasting-reasons & benefits).
How then it is charged that Islam does not make “any real effort at moral progress”?

Islam instills physical progress:
Muslims exercise (and have meditation and spirituality) in our five daily prayers; and the Prophet engaged in wrestling and horse racing (therefore all other forms of sport are encouraged).

Islam instills spiritual progress:
Our five daily Prayers, Zakaat/Charity, Fasting, Hajj are for spiritual (as well as moral) development.

  • “It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East and the West, but righteous is the one who believes in Allah, and the Last Day, and the angels and the Book and the prophets, and gives away wealth out of love for Him to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and to those who ask and to set slaves free e and keeps up prayer and pays the poor rate; and the performers of their promise when they make a promise, and the patient in distress and affliction and in the time of conflict. These are they who are truthful; and these are they who keep their duty” (Qur’an 2:177)
  • “Have We not given him (man) two eyes, And a tongue and two lips, And pointed out to him the two conspicuous ways? (good and evil). But he attempts not the uphill road; And what will make thee comprehend what the uphill road is? (It is) to free a slave, Or to feed in a day of hunger. An orphan nearly related, Or the poor man lying in the dust.  Then he is of those who believe and exhort one another to patience, and exhort one another to mercy. These are the people of the right hand” –(Qur’an 90:8-18).

Islam instills material progress:
Notably, in Islam there is no such distinction as “secular” knowledge. All knowledge is from Allāh:
“Read in the name of thy Lord who creates…Who taught by the pen, Taught man what he knew not;”
“I, Allāh, am the Seer. A Book which We have revealed to thee that thou mayest bring forth men, by their Lord’s permission, from darkness into light, to the way of the Mighty, the Praised One”–(Qur’an 96:1-5; 14:1).
And this knowledge is designated into two groups (1) material knowledge which provides nutrients for the body (2) religious or spiritual knowledge which provides nutrients for the soul.

  • “and say, My Lord, increase me in knowledge”–(Qur’an 20:114. While this verse was an instruction to the Prophet it is general to all Muslims). There would be no need for knowledge if not for progress, material and spiritual.
  • “And the earth — We have spread it out and made in it firm mountains and caused to grow in it of every suitable thing. And We have made in it means of subsistence for you and for him for whom you provide not”–(Qur’an 15:19-20). One can only reap the “suitable things” through harvesting; and can only have “subsistence” from the earth by cultivating it ; and both of which would, in cases, require equipment (which would have to be developed/ invented)..
  • See you not that Allåh has made subservient to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth, and granted to you His favours complete outwardly and inwardly?”–(Qur’an 31:20);
    “Allåh is He Who made subservient to you the sea that the ships may glide therein by His command, and that you may seek of His grace, and that you may give thanks. And He has made subservient to you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, all, from Himself. Surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect –Qur’an 45:12-13).
    One can only make the heavens and earth subservient to him/her and reap the “favors” of Allah” by taking to the text books and lab (by seeking knowledge).

Among those who will be punished severely on Day of Judgment is a learned man who could not profit from his learning: (Baihaqi) MM1-654-223 W (Mishkat Misabih-654-223 W).

Islam instills intellectual progress:

  • Seek knowledge even if it is China: (Baihaqi) MM1-361-111 W (Mishkat Misabih1-361-111 W).
  • Learning is a treasure-house. Its key is questioning: (Abu Naeem) MM1-361-112 W
  • Seeking knowledge for 1 hour, is better than keeping wake whole night: (Darimi) MM1-361-112 W
  • The superiority of the learned over the devout is like full moon over rest of stars. The learned are heirs of Prophets Abu Dawud, Vol. 3, #3634.
  • Search for knowledge is fard (compulsory) on every Muslim. (Ibn Majah) MM1-351-37.

As noted above, in Islam there is no such distinction as “secular” knowledge. All knowledge is from Allāh. And this knowledge is designated into two groups (1) material knowledge which provides nutrients for the body (2) religious or spiritual knowledge which provides nutrients for the soul.

“It (Islam) is the least open to dialogue and the most self-absorbed. It is convinced of its own perfection, yet brutally shuns self-examination and represses criticism”:
While Muslims may be “least open to dialogue” (and this may be due to alack of knowledge), Allah exhorts us in His Qur’an:
“Call to the way of thy Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and argue with them in the best manner. Surely thy Lord knows best him who strays from His path, and He knows best those who go aright”–(Qur’an 16:125).
This verse highlights that, contrary to popular perception, Islam does NOT seek to silence voices: Islam, the religion of reason, argument and example, seeks to enhance mentality. Islam is blessed with the Divine allure of reason.

Islam is perfect!
While Muslims may “shun(s) self-examination and represses criticism.” As noted in the verse above (Qur’an 16;125) Islam has no reason to “shun(s) self-examination and repress(es) criticism.”
So far no one has been able to make any valid criticism against Islam.
List your objections against Islam for us.

  1. “Speaking of peace and love may win over the ignorant, but when every twelfth verse of Islam’s holiest book either speaks to Allah’s hatred for non-Muslims or calls for their death, forced conversion, or subjugation, it’s little wonder that sympathy for terrorism runs as deeply as it does in the broader community – even if most Muslims personally prefer not to interpret their religion in this way.”

ANSWER:
As shown in items 3 and 4 Islam is not only “peace and love” but tolerance, mercy, and forgiveness. Here is more:
-Allāh bestows Love on the righteous; 19:96;
-Allah cast Love over Moses, 20:39;
-Allāh is full of Loving-kindness; 85:14;
-Allāh is Merciful, Loving-kind; 11:90;
-Allāh Loves; 2:195, 222; 3:76, 134, 146, 148, 159; 5:14, 45, 96; 9:4,7, 108; 49:10; 60:8: 61:4;
-Allāh Loves those who fight in His cause, 61:4;
-Allah puts Love and mercy between men and women, 30:21;
-If you do Love Allah, follow me, Allah will Love you/forgive your sins, 3:31;
-It may be that Allah may grant Love between you and your enemies, 60:7.
And the incomparable classic which He instructed His magnificent Messenger, Mohammad, to convey to the world:
“Say: O My servants who have sinned against their souls, despair not of the mercy of Allāh, surely Allāh forgives all sins. Verily, He is Most Forgiving. Ever Merciful”–(Qur’an 39:53).
Imagine the expanse of the love and mercy of Allah, the Creator, Nourisher and Sustainer of all the worlds, to address us in such loving, compassionate terms.

That “every twelfth verse of Islam’s holiest book either speaks to Allah’s hatred for non-Muslims or calls for their death, forced conversion, or subjugation”:
As stated, given the fact that Prophet Mohammad’s entire mission was shrouded in persecution and war by the enemies, it is a grand demonstration of love and mercy from Allah God that less than two percent of the Qur’an is about war.

To speak against and to fight persecutors and occupiers in order to effect peace and justice can hardly be labelled “hatred.”
The only non-Muslims whose deaths are called for, as shown in the above presentation, are the ones who first took up the sword to annihilate the Prophet and Muslims.

Perhaps every wise person knows that war is sometimes necessary to instill and maintain peace and justice. A leader or nation that uses force to quell unwarranted insurgency, such a “war” by the leader or state can hardly be viewed as “hatred.”
Would you label the Allies war against Germany as being “hatred” ?
Would you label America bombing Serbia (to end its genocide and rape of Bosnians) as being “hatred?”

As noted in the above presentation, there is no “forced conversion” in Islam.

Islam does not subjugate anyone. Those who militated to crush the Islamic State were vanquished and were allowed to practice their faith freely.
It would suffice to re-enter two quotes from Christians:

  • Thomas Arnold notes in his The Preaching of Islam (p.54):
    “Michael the Elder, Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch, writing in the latter half of the twelfth century…writes: “This is why the God of vengeance…beholding the wickedness of the Romans who, throughout their dominions, cruelly plundered our churches and our monasteries and condemned us without pity –brought from the region of the south the sons of Ishmael, to deliver us through them from the hands of the Romans.”
  • Muhammad Ali notes: “Muir, after admiring the leniency of the Arab conquerors towards the conquered and their justice and integrity, quotes a Nestorian Bishop of the time: “These Arabs to whom God has accorded in our days the dominion are become our masters; but they do not combat the Christian religion; much rather they protect our faith; they respect our priests and our holy men, and make gifts to our churches and our convents” (p. 128 [The Caliphate])””(The Early Caliphate, p. 86).

The critic notes about his article:
“Elaboration in comments. All verses in the comments are from the University of Southern California’s Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement: A Partnership between the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, Omar Ibn Al Khattab Foundation, & USC Center for Religion and Civic Culture.
Bottom of Form.”


                      NOTES
1. “No reproof be against you this day”–(Qur’an 12:92) were spoken by Joseph to his brothers who had cast him into a well and told their father that a wolf had devoured him.

2..Pandit Gyanandra Dev Sharma Shastri, at a meeting in Gorakhpur, [India]. 1928. Quoted in Ahmed Deedat, Muhummed The Greatest, p. 37. (Emphasis added).

3. Ahmed Deedat, Muhummed the Greatest, p. 31.

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