In the name of Allāh,
the Beneficent, the Merciful.
Peace and Blessings of Allāh on Mohammad.
Allāh–the Glorious and the High,
Lord of the worlds
Mohammad–who brought the world
to our feet and eternity to our arms.
WOMAN–TESTIMONY HALF OF MAN’S
Allāh enjoins in His Qur’an 2:282: “O you who believe, when you contract a debt for a fixed time, write it down…But if he who owes the debt is unsound in understanding or weak, or (if) he is not able to dictate himself, let his guardian dictate with fairness. And call to witness from among your men two witnesses; but if there are not two men, then one man and two women…so that if one of the two errs, the one may remind the other.”
A woman’s testimony is half that of a man’s only in the area of business, as the verse clearly states, as business transactions were dominated by men. In advanced societies where women also are involved in business dealings such a practice is not required.
However, this does not mean that the Qur’anic injunction is obsolete. There are (and will always be) societies the world over where women are not familiar with business dealings where this Qur’anic injunction may be applicable.
A woman’s testimony cannot be half of that of the man’s in every area of life, for as pointed out in Qur’an 24:6-9, (in the matter of the wife’s suspected infidelity) the testimony of the wife, supersedes that of the husband’s:
“And those who accuse their wives and have no witnesses except themselves, let one of them testify four times, bearing Allāh to witness, that he is of those who speak the truth. And the fifth (time) that the curse of Allāh be on him, if he is of those who lie. And it shall avert the chastisement from her, if she testify four times, bearing Allāh to witness, that he is of those who lie. And the fifth (time) that the wrath of Allāh to be on her, if he is of those who speak the truth.”
While the man’s testimony is “one-fifth” that of the woman’s, no court would dare to assert that a man’s testimony in all matters is inferior to that of the wife’s, or that the testimony of a man is “worth half” (or “one-fifth,” as per the verse) that of a woman’s. And, notably, a woman’s chastity is a more sensitive matter than a business transaction.
Also, the Prophet Mohammad taught that after worship of Allāh the next in line for our service is our mother, and three times over before service to our father–(Bokhari Vol. 8, #2; which seems to be an explanation of Qur’an 31:14: “And We have enjoined on man concerning his parents –his mother bears him with faintings upon faintings and his weaning takes two years– saying: Give thanks to Me and to thy parents. To Me is the eventual coming.”
A mother has three degrees of excellence over a father: she having carried us for nine months, given birth to us, and nursed us). But no critic would dare assert that a father’s worth is only one-quarter the worth of a mother.
In summary, if it be claimed that the woman is worth half that of a man, then it can be claimed that a man is worth a fifth (or a fourth as per the hadith) of a woman.
That Mohammad said women are “deficient” in their minds and yet says that women will go to Hell (whether in majority or minority) is a contradiction. Allāh is Just; He holds one accountable only for what he/she is capable of understanding. A person who is “deficient” in mind cannot be held responsible for his/her actions. Thus, it would be an injustice for Allāh to send a person who is “deficient” in mind to Hell.
That women are not “deficient” in their minds is also contradicted by the fact that men and women are/were created of the same essence–(Qur’an 4:1). Being created from the same kind one party’s mind cannot be “deficient” than the other. Though the one that utilizes his/her reasoning faculties can be said to be superior to the other.
If the Prophet had made such a statement, the critics have misinterpreted it.
Interestingly whereas Christians try to cast aspersion on this teaching of Qur’an 2:282, the Bible teaches about those who “hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon…” that, “At the mouth of TWO witnesses, or THREE witnesses. shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of ONE witness he shall NOT be put to death”–(Deut. 17:2-6).
Would Christians say that one man’s witness is not to be taken under all situations?
And the answer is yes as Deut. 19:15 shows: “ONE Witness shall NOT rise up against a man for ANY iniquity or for ANY sin…”
And as the teaching of Jesus (the Christian’s God) shows:
“Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between him and thee alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two MORE, that in the mouth of TWO or THREE witnesses every word may be established” “It is also written in your law, that the testimony of TWO MEN is true”–(Matt. 18:15-16; John 8:17).
Whereas Deuteronomy deals with “witness” in the case of false worship and “any” sin, Matthew deals with personal transgression and John seems to deal with all cases which is in consonance with Deut. 19:15.
Thus, the Jewish and Christian man’s witness is less than the Muslim man’s and has only a “half” witness credibility as the Muslim woman’s.
In fact, the Muslim woman’s have greater “witness” power than the Jewish and Christian man considering that the Muslim woman’s “half” witness is restricted only to business matters in contrast to the Jewish and Christian man who has only a “half” witness in ALL matters.
(Jesus mentions the witness of two “MEN,” did he forgot the women, or does the Christian woman has no “witness” credibility?)
In summary, the Muslim man has greater “witness” credibility than the Jewish and Christian man. And, apart from business matters, the Muslim woman also has greater “witness” credibility than the Jewish and Christian man (and the Jewish and Christian woman).
Notably, Jehovah’s Witnesses govern by the teaching of the Bible that “ONE Witness shall NOT rise up against a man for ANY iniquity or for ANY sin”–(Deut. 19:15).
The Toronto Star, Tuesday, July 3, 2012, notes in its article by Wendy Gillis, “Sex abuse verdict emboldens Canadians” which reports the story of a Jehovah’s Witnesses girl when “she was 9 years old” being “repeatedly molested” by a male “fellow churchgoer;” that if the accused denies the charges against him and there is no one to substantiate the charges then the Jehovah’s Witnesses ““elders cannot take action”” because the Scriptures say ““‘No single witness should rise up against a man respecting any error or any sin.’””
It would be interesting to note the Jehovah’s Witnesses response if a 9-7 year-old Jehovah’s Witnesses girl was to have consensual sex with a Jehovah’s Witnesses adult male and if the man was charged by the State, if Jehovah’s Witnesses would apply the defense in court that the Biblical teaching allows girls who have sprouted breasts and genital hairs as being ready for sex; as the Answering Islam Christian apologist and critic (on the Internet) states:
“the Holy Bible makes a reference to the general age of a girl considered for marriage. The reference is found in a parable where God likens Israel to a baby girl whom Yahweh took in and then eventually married.” The verse in reference reads: “On the day you were born your cord was not cut, nor were you washed with water to make you clean, nor were you rubbed with salt or wrapped in cloths. No one looked on you with pity or had compassion enough to do any of these things for you. Rather, you were thrown out into the open field, for on the day you were born you were despised. Then I passed by and saw you kicking about in your blood, and as you lay there in your blood I said to you, ‘Live!’ I made you grow like a plant of the field. You grew up and developed and became the most beautiful of jewels. Your breasts were formed and your hair grew, you who were naked and bare. Later I passed by, and when I looked at you and saw that you were old enough for love, I spread the corner of my garment over you and covered your nakedness. I gave you my solemn oath and entered into a covenant with you, declares the Sovereign LORD, and you became mine. I bathed you with water and washed the blood from you and put ointments on you. I clothed you with an embroidered dress and put leather sandals on you. I dressed you in fine linen and covered you with costly garments. I adorned you with jewelry: I put bracelets on your arms and a necklace around your neck, and I put a ring on your nose, earrings on your ears and a beautiful crown on your head. So you were adorned with gold and silver; your clothes were of fine linen and costly fabric and embroidered cloth. Your food was fine flour, honey and olive oil. You became very beautiful and rose to be a queen. And your fame spread among the nations on account of your beauty, because the splendor I had given you made your beauty perfect, declares the Sovereign LORD.” Ezekiel 16:4-14. God mentions that the young babe attained the age for lovemaking after her breasts had formed and her pubic hairs had grown, clear signs of puberty. The reason we believe that the reference is to pubic hair is because a) the hair on the head of a girl grows many years before reaching the time of puberty, and b) the connection to nakedness suggests that the exposure of her body parts needed to be covered since it was shameful for them to be exposed for all to see. In other words, there was no shame for the hair of a girl’s head to be uncovered, but exposing one’s pubic hairs would be.” Pay attention to the fact that it is only after the young girl attained maidenhood, puberty, that God passed by again and thenproceeded to marry her. God’s spreading the corner of his garment and making a covenant with the young maiden refers to marriage.” “Thus, we have a biblical text establishing puberty as the minimum age for marriage.” (The Christian also notes the views of others and concludes): “In light of the foregoing we conclude that the Bibledoes set forth the acceptable age of marriage. Yahweh’s parable to his peoplepresupposes their prior knowledge and acceptance of the marriageable age being setsometime after a young maiden has attained puberty. Anything before this would be viewed as abnormal and unusual.” (Highlight and color added).
The main purpose of the Christian’s moon-dancing seems to be an attempt to denigrate the Prophet Mohammad for his marriage to nine-year old ‘Aisha, supposing that ‘Aisha was prepubescent when the Prophet had marital relations with her.
Firstly, a girl may develop breasts and pubic hair years before having her period.
Secondly, if breasts and pubic hair are the criteria for having sex what about those women who do not develop breasts (and perhaps some women may not even have pubic hair), are these adult women not ready for marriage/sex?
According to Christians the Bible is the word of God. And according to God as He revealed in Ezekiel 16:4-14 above, and as the Christian submitted, a girl is ready for marriage when her breasts are formed and she has pubic hair which are indications of puberty.
According to news-report and other materials on the Internet an alarming number of girls in America –from those examined, 10 percent of Whites, 14 percent of Hispanics and 23 percent of Blacks– begin puberty at the age of seven (7) years, developing breasts, pubic hair and even menstruating.
Thus, according to the Christian’s God/Bible girls of about eight or nine are capable of marriage. And as noted in ‘Aisha, “Al-Hassan bin Salih said “I saw a neighboress of mine who became a grandmother at the age of twenty-one” (the footnote to this narration explains that “This woman attained puberty at the age of nine and married to give birth to a daughter at ten; the daughter had the same experience”).
Obviously then, Arab and Jewish girls must have developed “breasts” and “pubic hair” and menstruating at an early age –which is in accordance with the Bible, Ezekiel 16:4-14–as the Christian points out (and also in accordance to modern reports).
In fact, seems that Eastern girls also began/begin womanhood at the age of about seven (7) years as the Biblical declaration finds resonance in Hinduism which teaches that “after being seven years old, the sooner a girl is married, the better.”
Further, as noted in ‘Aisha, apart from Al-Hassan bin Salih’s neighboress who “attained puberty at the age of nine and married to give birth to a daughter at ten;” it notes the following reports:
-“Mom elated 10-year-old gave birth to daughter;”
-“U.S. teen birth rate at 60-year low, agency reports,” saying that the drop in births were “4 percent among girls aged 10 to 14;”
-“the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland has revealed it is paying the bills of a poor, pregnant 12-year-old to prevent her from having an abortion;”
-“At 14, Kimberly is a veteran of Toronto’s sex trade,” she “began selling her body when she was 11 years old;”
-in Costa Rica girls say “they’ve been working as prostitutes for a year, since they were 11 and 12,” the “youngest” of these prostitutes was one who was a “9-year-old;”
-“At least 17 Israeli soldiers are under investigation” for having sex with “an 11-year-oldgirl;” according to the girl “the sex was consensual.”
That these 12-9 year-old girls, having “breasts” and “pubic hair,” and even menstruating can be wives is substantiated by the Bible. And the 9, 10 and 11, were probably having sex before these ages.
Mohammad’s marriage to ‘Aisha is supported not only by historical and medical facts, but, whereas Christians try to denigrate Mohammad for marrying ‘Aisha, the Christian’s Bible exonerates and supports Mohammad for marrying ‘Aisha. (.See also ‘Aisha’s marriage-9 or 19?; Christianity-sex slaves & prepubescent girls).